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1.          Hamp-Lyons, L. and B. Heasley, Study Writing: Written English for Academic and Professional Purposes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997.

2.             Jordan, R. R., Academic Writing Course: Study Skills in English, London, Longman, 1999.

3.             Rumsey, S., How to Find Information: A Guide for Researchers, Maidenhead, Open University Press, 2005.



1.             The RBAF Service Writing Manual.





1.             Clark, Lt Col (ret) T. G., U.S. Army Planning Doctrine: Identifying the Problem is the Heart of the Problem.
2.             Lesson 3: Decision Making and Problem Solving Leadership Theory and Application.

3.             Chapter 4: Problem Solving



1.             Zaccaro, S. J., Rittman, A. L., Marks, M. A., Team LeadershipLeadership Quarterly, 2001.
2.             Army Leadership, U.S.A, Army Doctrine Reference Publication, Aug 2012.

3.              Collins, Arthur S., Common Sense Training: A Working Philosophy for Leaders, 2nd edn, Random House Publishing Group, 1998.

4.             Graham, H. T. and R. Bennett, Human Resources Management, 9th edn, London, Pitman, 1998.
5.             Huntington, Samuel, The Soldier and the State, Harvard, Harvard University Press, 1957.
6.             Kolenda, Christopher D. (ed.), Leadership: The Warrior's Art, Army War College Foundation Press, 2001.
7.             Mullins, L. J., Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edn, Harlow, Prentice Hall, 2005.
8.             Nye, Roger H., The Challenge of Command: Reading for Military Excellence, 1986.

9.             Senge, Peter M., The Fifth Discipline: The Art of and Practice of the Learning Organization, 2nd edn, 2006.

10.          Sheffield, G. D. (ed.), Leadership and Command: The Anglo-American Military Experience Since 1861, London, Brassey's, 1997.

11.          Taylor, Robert L. William E. Rosenback and Eric B. Rosenback (ed.), Military Leadership: In Pursuit of Excellence, 6th edn, New York, Routledge, 2009.



1.             Asad-ul, I. L., Between Rising Powers: China, Singapore and India, Singapore, ISEAS, 2007.

2.             Bacevich, A. J., American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of American Foreign Policy, Harvard, Harvard University Press, 2002.

3.             Barnett, M., "Social Constructivism," in J. Baylis, S. Smith, and P. Owens (eds.), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 6th edn, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 130-143.

4.             Baylis, J. and S. Smith (ed.), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 3rd edn.,S Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005.

5.             Berridge, G. R., International Politics: States, Power and Conflict since 1945, 3rd edn, Hemel Hemstead, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1997.

6.             Bin Sayeed, K., Western Dominance and Political Islam – Challenge and Response, New York, State University of New York Press, 1995.

7.             Blasko, D. J., The Chinese Army Today: Tradition and Transformation for the 21st Century, London, Routledge, 2006.

8.             Blum, W., Freeing the World to Death: Essays on the American Empire. Monroe, Common Courage Press, 2004.

9.             Brantly, A. F., The Decision To Attack: Military And Intelligence Cyber Decision-Making, Georgia, University of Georgia Press, 2016.

10.          Brolon, S., International Relations in a Changing Global System, Boulder, Westview Press, 1996.

11.          Brown, C., Understanding International Relations, 4th edn, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

12.          Cottey, A., Reshaping Defence Diplomacy: New Roles for Military Cooperation and Assistance, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004.

13.          Daalder, I.H. and J.M. Lindsay, America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy, Hoboken, John Wiley, 2005.

14.          Denoon, D.B.H., The Economic and Strategic Rise of China and India: Asian Realignments after 1997 Financial Crisis, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

15.          Dunne, T. and B. C. Schmidt, "Realism," in J. Baylis, S. Smith, and P. Owens (eds.), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 6th edn, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 91-103.

16.          Dunne, T., "Liberalism," in J. Baylis, S. Smith, and P. Owens (eds.), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 6th edn, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 104-116.

17.          Eccleshall, R. et al., Political ideologies: An Introduction, London, Routledge, 1991.

18.          Ferguson, N., The Rise and Fall of the American Empire, London, Allen Lane, 2004.

19.          Flanagan, S.J. and M.E. Marti (ed.), The People's Liberation Army and China in Transition, Washington, National Defence University Press, 2003.

20.          Friedman, E., Asia's Giants: Comparing China and India, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

21.          Gerstl, A. (ed.), Unresolved border, land and maritime disputes in Southeast Asia: bi- and multilateral conflict resolution approaches and ASEAN's centrality, Brill Publishers, Leiden, 2017.

22.          Gill, B., Rising Star: China's New Security Diplomacy, Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 2007.

23.          Glessmann, H., Security Handbook 2008: Emerging Powers in East Asia: China Russia and India: Local Conflicts and Regional Security Building in Asia's Northeast, Stockholm, Nomos Verlog, 2008.

24.          Gray, C.D., International Law and the Use of Force, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004.

25.          Gray, C.S., War, Peace and International Relations: An Introduction to Strategic History, 2012.

26.          Harvey, R., Global Disorder, London, Constable and Robinson, 2003.

27.          Hurrell, A., "Rising Powers And The Emerging Global Order," in J. Baylis, S. Smith, and P. Owens (eds.), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 6th ed., United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 76-90

28.          International Institute for Strategic Affairs, Strategic Survey 2008: The Annual Review of World Affairs, London, Routledge for International Institute for Strategic Affairs, 2008.

29.          Jackson, R.J., Global Politics in the 21st century, 2013.

30.          Kapur, A., India – From Regional to World Power, London, Routledge, 2006.

31.          Lak, D., India Express: The Future of the New Superpower, New York, Macmillan, 2008.

32.          Lal, R., Understanding China and India: Security Implications for the United States and the World, Westport, Praegar Security International, 2006.

33.          Lawson, S., International Relations, 2nd edn, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2012.

34.          McConville, T. and R. Holmes (ed.), Defence Management in Uncertain Times, London, Frank Cass, 2003.

35.          Mingst, K. A., Essentials of International Relations, 4th edn, New York, Norton, 2008.

36. MOD UK, Policy Paper No 1. Defence Diplomacy, [Website]

37.          Mostafa, R., Political Ideologies: A Comparative Approach, 2nd edn, Armoak, Sharp, 1995.

38.          Nicholson, M., International Relations: A Concise Introduction, Basingstoke, Pallgrave Macmillan, 2002.

39.          Russett, B., International Security and Conflict, New York, Ashgate, 2008.

40.          Scruton, R., A Dictionary of Political Thought, 2nd edn, London, Macmillan, 1996.

41.          Shirk, S.L., China: Fragile Superpower: How China's Internal Politics Could Derail its Peaceful Rise, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007.

42.          Weatherbee, D. E., International Relations in Southeast Asia: The Struggle for Autonomy, Lanham, Rowan & Littlefield Publications, 2005.



1.             Bertrand, J., Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

2.             Brown, D., The State and Ethnic Politics in Southeast Asia, London, Routledge, 1996.

3.             Carter, J., G. E. Irani and V. D. Volkan (ed.), Regional and Ethnic Conflicts: Perspectives from the Front Lines, Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall, 2009.

4.             Esman, M., An Introduction to Ethnic Conflict, London, Polity Press, 2004.

5.             Ganguly, R., A Dictionary of Ethnic Conflict, London, Routledge, 2007.

6.             Ganguly, R. and I. McDuff (ed.), Ethnic Conflict and Secessionism in South and Southeast Asia, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publishing, 2003.

7.             Griffiths, H., 'A Political Economy of Ethnic Conflict, Ethnonationalism and Organised Crime', Civil Wars, vol. 2, no. 3, 1999, p. 56-71.

8.             Gurr, E. R., Ethnic Conflict in World Politics, Boulder, Westview Press, 2002.

9.             Horowitz, D., Ethnic Groups in Conflict, 2nd edn, Berkley, University of California Press, 2000.

10.          Kellas, J., The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 2nd edn, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 1998.

11.          Levison, D., Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook, Phoenix, Oryx Press, 1998.

12.          Marks, T. A., 'Ideology of Insurgency: New Ethnic Focus or Old Cold War Focus', Small Wars and Insurgencies, vol. 15, no. 1, 2004, p. 107-28.

13.          Marshall, M. G. and E. R. Gurr, Peace and Conflict, College Park, University of Maryland Press, 2003.

14.          Snitwongse, K., Ethnic Conflicts in Southeast Asia, Singapore, ISEAS, 2005.

15.          Toft, M. D., The Geography of Ethnic Violence: Identity, Interests, and the Indivisibility of Territory, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2003.

16.          Wolff, S., Ethnic Conflict: A Global Perspective, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007.


1.             Baldwin, D., "The Concept of Security," Review of International Studies, vol.23, no.1, 1997, pp. 5-26.

2.             Bilgin, P., "Individual and Societal Dimensions of Security," International Studies Review, vol.5, 2003, pp. 203-222.

3.             Collins A. (ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007.

4.             Abuza, Z., Conspiracy of Silence: the Insurgency in Southern Thailand, Washington, US Institute of Peace Press, 2009.

5.             Beckett, I. F. W., Modern Insurgencies and Counter Insurgencies, London, Routledge, 2001.

6.             Beckett, I. F. W. and J. Pimlott, Armed Forces and Modern Counterinsurgency, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 1985.

7.             Bloss, W. P., Transnational Crime in a Global Context, New York, McGraw Hill, 2006.

8.             Bunker, R. J. (ed.), 'Non-state Threats and Case Studies', Small Wars and Insurgencies, vol. 13, no. 2, 2002, p. 28-96.

9.            Chalk, P., Low Intensity Conflict in Southeast Asia: Piracy, Drug Trafficking and Political Terrorism, Leamington Spa, Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, 1998.

10.          Emmers, R., 'ASEAN and the Securitization of Transnational Crime in Southeast Asia', The Pacific Review, vol. 16, no. 3, 2003, p. 419-38.

11.        Evans, M., R. Parkin and A. Ryan (ed.), Future Armies, Future Challenges: Land Warfare in the Information Age, Crows Nest, Allen & Unwin, 2004.

12.         Finlan, A., 'Trapped in the Dead Ground: US Counter-Insurgency Strategy in Iraq', Small Wars and Insurgencies, vol. 16, no. 1, 2005, p. 1-21.

13.         Johnson, D. and M. Valencia, M., Piracy in Southeast Asia: Status, Issues, and Responses, Singapore, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2005.

14.         Madsen, F., Transnational Organised Crime, London, Routledge, 2009.

15.         Makarenko, T., 'Terrorism and Transnational Organised Crime', in P. Smith (ed.), Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability, Armonk, Sharpe, 2005.

16.        Mandel, R., Deadly Transfers and the Global Playground: Transnational Security Threats in a Disorderly World, Westport, Greenwood Press, 1999.

17.        Nagl, A., Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup With a Knife, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 2002.

18.         Polk, W. R., Violent Politics: A History of Insurgency, Terrorism and Guerilla War, From the American Revolution to Iraq, New York, Harper Collins, 2007.

19.         Pratt, A. N., 'Human Trafficking: the Nadir of an Unholy Trinity', European Security, vol. 13, no. 1-2, 2004, p. 55-71.

20.         Reichel, P. L., Handbook of transnational Crime and Justice, Thousand Oaks, Sage, 2005.

21.         Stehr, M., 'Modern Piracy', Naval Forces, vol. 26, no. 5, 2005, p. 20-31.

22.         Sullivan, J. P., 'Urban Gangs Evolving as Criminal Netwar Actors', Small Wars and Insurgencies, vol. 11, no. 1, 2000, p. 82-96.

23.         Yoshimatsu, H., 'Collective Action Problems and Regional Integration', Contemporary Southeast Asia, vol. 28, no. 1, 2006, p. 115-40.


1.             Bellamy, A. J. and P. D. Williams, Providing Peacekeepers: The Politic, Challenges, and Future of United Nations Peacekeeping Contribution, 1st edn, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013.

2.             Brahimi, L., Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (A/55/305–S/2000/809), New York, United Nations, August 2000. Available from:

3.             Chiyuki Aoi and Yee-Kuang Heng (ed.), Asia-Pacific Nations in International Peace Support and Stability, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

4.             Diehl, P., Peace Operations, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2008.

5.             Gordon, D. S. and F. H. Toase (ed.), Aspects of Peacekeeping, London, Frank Cass, 2001.

6.             Klare, M. T. and D. C. Thomas (ed.), World Security: Challenges for a New Century, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1994.

7.             Levine, D. H., Morality of Peacekeeping, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2014.

8.             Malan, M., 'A Concise Conceptual History of UN Peace Operations', African Security Review, vol. 6 no. 1, 1997, p. 16-27. Available from:

9.             North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, Allied Joint Publication (AJP-3.4.1): Allied Joint Doctrine for the Military Contribution to Peace Support, Brussels, NATO Standardization Office, December 2014. Available from:

10.          United Nations, Charter of the United Nations, New York, 1945. Available from: or

11.          United Nations, Handbook on United Nations Multidimensional Peacekeeping Operations, New York, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, December 2003. Available from:

12.          United Nations, Improving Security of United Nations Peacekeepers, New York, Department of Peacekeeping Operations & Department of Field Support, 2017. Available from:

13.          United Nations, The Role of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations in Addressing Local Conflicts, New York, Department of Peacekeeping Operations & Department of Field Support, 2017. Available from:

14.          United Nations, United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Principles and Guidelines, New York, Department of Peacekeeping Operations & Department of Field Support, 2008. Available from:

15.          United States Government, Joint Publication 3-07.3: Peace Operations. Washington D.C., Joint Chiefs of Staff, August 2012. Available from:


1.            Ashour, Omar, The de-Radicalization of Jihadists: Transforming Armed Islamist Movements, 2009.

2.            Gareau, F. H., State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to the War on Terrorism, Atlanta, Clarity Press, 2004.

3.            Gunaratna, R., Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror, 2nd edn, London, Hurst and Company, 2003.

4.            Gunaratna, R., Combating Terrorism, Singapore, Marshall Cavendish, 2005.

5.            Harmon, C. C., Terrorism Today, London, Frank Cass Publishing, 2000.

6.            Hiro, D., War Without End: The Rise of Islamist Terrorism and Global Response, London, Routledge, 2002.

7.            Horgan, J., Walking Away from Terrorism, New York, Routledge, 2009.

8.            Imre, R., T. B. Mooney and B. Clarke, Responding to Terrorism: Political, Philosophical and Legal Perspectives, Hampshire, Ashgate, 2008.

9.            Jane's Information Group, Jane's World Insurgency and Terrorism, issue 24, Coulsdon, Jane's Information Group, 2008.

10.          Jasparro, C., 'Low-level Criminality Linked to Transnational Terrorism', Jane's Intelligence Review, vol. 17, no. 5, 2005, p. 40-43.

11.          Kegley, C. W. Jr. (ed.), The New Global Terrorism: Characteristics, Causes, Controls, Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall, 2003.

12.       Kushner, Harvey W. (ed.), Essential Readings on Political Terrorism: Analyses of Problems and Prospects for the 21st Century, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 2002.

13.          Lutz, J. M. and B. J. Lutz, Global Terrorism, London, Routledge, 2004.

14.          Mahan, S. and P. L. Griset, Terrorism in Perspective, 2nd edn, Thousand Oaks, Sage, 2008.

15.          Nacos, B. Terrorism and Counter Terrorism, New York, Pearson Longman, 2009.

16.          Ressa, Maria A., Seeds of Terror – An Eyewitness Account of Al-Qaeda's Newest Center of Operations in Southeast Asia, 2003.

17.          Robb, J., Brave New War: The Next Stage of Terrorism and the End of Globalisation, London, John Wiley and Sons, 2008.

18.          Sinclair, A., An Anatomy of Terror: A History of Terrorism, London, Macmillan, 2003.

19.         Smith, P. J. (ed.), Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability, Armonk, Sharpe, 2005.

20.          Whittaker, D. J., The Terrorism Reader, London, Routledge, 2003.

21.          Wilkinson, P., Terrorism versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response, London, Routledge, 2006.



1.             Allhoff, F. (ed.), Binary Bullets: the Ethics of Cyberwarfare, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016.

2.             Bentley, C., 'eLearning: Changing the Security Landscape', Intersec, 2016, pp.114-16.

3.             Brantly, A. F., The Decision To Attack: Military And Intelligence Cyber Decision-Making, Georgia, University of Georgia Press, 2016.

4.             Brown, R., 'The Changing Face of Cyber Protection', Australian Defence Magazine, 2015, vol. 23, no. 5, pp.34-35.

5.             Cowan, G., 'When Is a Cyber Attack an Act of Warfare?', IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, vol. 54, no.  29, 2017, p.30-32.

6.            Crosston, M., 'The Millennial's War: Dilemmas of Network Dependency in Today's Military', Defense & Security Analysis, Vol.33, Issue. 2, 2017, pp.94-105 (94).

7.             CQ researchers, Global Issues: Selections from CQ Researchers, Sage Publications, 2014.

8.             Davenport, R., 'Know The Enemy', Armed Forces Journal, 2009, pp. 21-22.

9.             Department of National Defense, Meeting the Challenges of Cybersecurity: The

Philippine Situation and Outlook, Quezon City, Department of National Defense, 2017.

10.          Dumbacher E. D., 'Limiting Cyberwarfare: Applying Arms-Control Models to an Emerging Technology', The Nonproliferation Review, 2018, No3 -4, June-July.

11.          Gates, M., 'Updated Cyber Agenda', Security Management, 2015, pp. 26-31.

12.          Gates, M., 'AI: The Force Multiplier', Security Management, 2017, pp. 32-35.

13.          Gates, M., 'Driving the Business', Security Management,  2017, pp. 28-31.

14.         Gewirtz, D., 'Preemptive Offensive Cyberwarfare', 2017, The Journal of Counterterrorism and Homeland Security International, Vol 23, No 1, Spring 2017, pp.8-10 (29).

15.         Hess, W.W., 'Cybersecurity of the Future: The Way for the Communications MoSs', Marine Corps Gazette, vol. 101, no.3, 2017, pp. 72-75.

16.          Hilvert, J., 'Inside the Australian Cyber Security Centre', Australian Defence Magazine, vol. 22, No. 5, 2014, pp. 26-28.

17.          Iannotta, B., 'Plugging the Wikileaks: Alert Software Was in Place but Not Activated', C4ISR Journal, vol. 10, no 1, 2011, pp.30-32.

18.      Kallender, P., 'Japan's Emerging Trajectory as a 'Cyberpower': From Securitization To Militarization Of Cyberspace', The Journal of Strategic Studies, vol. 40, No. 1-2, 2017, pp. 118-145.

19.          Kaplan, F., Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War, New York, Simon & Schuster, 2016.

20.          Landau, S., 'Cybersurveillance and the New Frontier of Deterrence,' Current History, 2016, vol. 115, no. 777, pp. 29-31.

21.          Lee, R.M. and T. Rid, 'OMG Cyber!: Thirteen Reasons Why Hype Makes For Bad Policy', RUSI Journal, vol. 159, no. 5, 2014, pp.4-12.

22.          Letteer, R.A., 'Marine Corps CIO and Cybersecurity', Marine Corps Gazette, vol. 101, no.9, 2017, pp.13-17.

23.          Marsden, R., 'Cyber Active', Armada International, 2016, no. 01, pp. 6-11.

24.          Meyer, B.L., 'Defending the New Silk Road', Armed Forces Journal, 2009, pp. 12, 14, 16.

25.          Murphy, D., 'Out of the Shadows: Normalising Cyber-Security Operations', Jane's International Defence Review, 2015, vol. 48, pp. 60-63, 65.

26.          Oppenheimer, A., 'Caught In The World Wide Web: The Lure of Online Terrorist Propaganda', Military Technology, vol. 41, no. 7-8, 2017, p. 60-63.

27.          Palmer, A., 'China's Cybersecurity Policy: Security or Protectionism?', RSIS Commentary, 2017, no. 081.

28.          Rittinghouse, J.W., Defending the Cloud: Waging Warfare in Cyberspace, West Conshohocken PA, Infinity Publishing, 2011.

29.          Schia, N.N., 'The Cyber Frontier and Digital Pitfalls in the Global South', Third World Quarterly, vol. 39, no. 5, 2018, pp. 821-837.

30.          Sloane, S., 'The Role of a 'Cyber Czar'', Armed Forces Journal, 2009, pp. 17-18, 20.

31.          Smeets, M., 'A Matter of Time: On the Transitory Nature of Cyberweapons', The Journal of Strategic Studies, vol. 41, nos. 1- 2, 2018, pp. 6-32.

32.          Stitilis, D., 'EU and NATO Cybersecurity Strategies and National Cyber Security Strategies: A Comparative Analysis' Security Journal, vol. 30, no. 4, 2017, pp. 1151-1168.

33.          Yates, W., 'Affordable and Effective Cybersecurity', Marine Corps Gazette, vol. 101, no. 9, 2017, pp. 9-12.



1.           Black, J., Air Power A Global History, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016.

2.           Geneva Additional Protocols, 1977.

3.           Geneva Conventions I – IV, 1949.

4.           Hague Conventions, 1907.

5.         Henckaerts, J and Beck, L.D, Customary International Humanitarian Law, International Committee of the Red Cross Vol.1, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

6.           Human Rights Law.

7.           Ministry of Defence, Brunei Military Doctrine, Brunei Joint Doctrine Publication, BJDP-D (Second Edition), 2013.

8.           Ministry of Defence, Defence White Paper: Defending the Nation's Sovereignty, Brunei, Prime Minister's Office, 2004.

9.           Ministry of Defence, Execution, Brunei Joint Doctrine Publication, BJDP-D – 3.40.

10.        Ministry of Defence, Joint Intelligence, Brunei Joint Doctrine Publication, BJDP-2.00.

11.        Ministry of Defence, Joint Operations Execution, Brunei Joint Doctrine Publication, BJDP-D – 3.00.

12.        Ministry of Defence, Brunei Joint Operations Planning, Brunei Joint Doctrine Publication, BJDP-D – 5.00.

13.        Ministry of Defence, Logistic Support to Joint Operations, Brunei Joint Doctrine Publication, BJDP-4.00.

14.        Ministry of Defence, RBAF Intelligence Operators Handbook, Edition 2.0.

15.        Olsen, J. A., A History of Air Warfare, Pontomac Books, 2010.

16.        Treaty Law.

17.        UN Charter, 1945.